The Effect of a Printed Gap Waveguide Antenna at 60 GHz on the Human Body

Document Type : Original Article


1 Electrical Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute in Tenth of Ramadan City, HTI, Egypt.

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt

3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, Montr𝑒́al, Quebec, Canada.

4 Communications and Electronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

5 Communications Department, Information and Engineering Technology, German University in Cairo, Egypt.


Millimetre-wave (mm-Wave) bands are becoming increasingly relevant for modern communication standards due to their large bandwidth and enhanced security. This development in communications standards has inspired the emergence of innovative antenna configurations within these bands. Moreover, a growing concern over the possible adverse consequences of mm-Wave frequency exposure on human health motivates investigations into mm-Wave frequency's impacts on the human body. This paper investigates the impact of a Printed Gap Waveguide (PGW) antenna on the hu-man body at 60 GHz. A Magneto-Electric (ME) dipole antenna with broadband operation and identical radiation characteristics in the mm-Wave band is proposed. PGW technology is utilized to implement a ME dipole antenna for studying human body exposure to 60 GHz Electromagnetic (EM) radiation. ME-dipole elements have been developed and examined, and EM exposure is calculated in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The antenna is made up of a cross-shaped ME-dipole that is supported by an Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) side wall cavity. The antenna with the proposed design achieves 23.4% relative impedance bandwidth at 60 GHz over the entire operating frequency range. Simulations were performed to investigate and validate the performance of the structure using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) and a high-frequency structure simulator (ANSYS HFSS). On the basis of the presented results, there is a clear advantage in evaluating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) according to this state-of-the-art guiding structure and meeting the global standards.


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